PAPERS

The first twenty passive houses in Croatia

 

Prof. Ljubomir Miščević, Mag. Eng. Arch. Urb.

University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture

Kačićeva 26. HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Tel./fax: +385 1 4639394

miscevic@arhitekt.hr  pass-net@arhitekt.hr  ides-edu@arhitekt.hr

www.arhitekt.hr   www.sunarh.hr   www.pass-net.net   www.ides-edu.eu

 

 

1 Introduction

 

In the paper two topics based on professional experience are presented. As a number of realized passive houses in Croatia is increasing more and more interesting experiences are recognized from needed building skills and financing to construction and energy efficiency. Although there are twenty realized passive houses till the end of 2013 and only some of them are tested on air-tightness, it is pointed out that realizations of passive houses in continental and seaside regions in Croatia are excellent in use and maintenance. All results of energy consumption and achieved thermal comfort are over expectations. Some houses are under thermal-vision monitoring. The first one of family houses is still in the process of certification in PHI in Darmstadt.

 

Passive house is scientifically and practically proved energy concept of architecture in synergy with construction and installation systems that developed amazing innovations. Economical values are checked and they made affordable reality of investment. Healthy characteristics of indoor environment, thermal and acoustical comfort achieved is on the highest level in the history of architecture. Passive house concept because of all references is the most relevant in programming and planning low carbon development.

 

As researcher, academy professor and professional in the field of architecture and sustainable development for years I am completely convinced that passive house concept of Professor Wolfgang Feist, PhD is “a solid foundation for the energy revolution” as he said in foreword from the editor at 17th international passive house conference in 2013.

For years passive house is showed in diagrams as the smallest column of energy consumption reaching so low level. With addition of some active installation systems (solar PV and/or thermal collectors) it is easily becoming zero or plus energy building.

Regarding passive house model the author suggest a change of perception – picture of energy efficiency and to turn upside down traditional diagram!

 

Passive house is the most provable and performable conceptual platform for the self-sufficient architecture. Although there are only twenty realized passive houses till the end of 2013 and only some of them are tested on air-tightness, in spite of that fact, in the paper is pointed out that realizations of passive houses in continental and seaside regions in Croatia (Central South Europe) are excellent in use and maintenance. All results of energy consumption and achieved thermal comfort are over expectations. Some houses are under monitoring with thermal-vision control.

 

2 The first twenty passive houses in Croatia

 

The first one of family houses is still in the process of certification in PHI in Darmstadt. Projects of the European Intelligent Energy Europe program encourage the highest energy efficiency. In addition to the research of architectural envelope - intelligent physical modelling of technology and performance, along with the results of various advanced concepts and systems, IEE projects support them in constructive ways, depending on particular topics. The project Establishment of Co-operation Network of Passive House Promoters (PASS-NET) realized in cooperation with Passive House Institute (Darmstadt) that was completely finished in 2011 resulted with very interesting conclusions and on-line access to data base for examples of passive houses from various European climatic and economically developed countries that is active (www.passivehousedatabase.eu).

 

Figure 1: The first twenty passive houses in Croatia till December 2013.

 

3  From PASS-NET to PassREg

3.1 PASS-NET project

 

The full project title of PASS-NET is Establishment of a Co-operation Network of Passive House Promoters. One of the PASS-NET goals was the support in implementation of EU Parliament Resolution No. 2007/2106 (INI), from the 31th January 2008.

 

Figure 2: PASS-NET EU IEE. The project map of participants and diagram of supposed realizations.

 

 

3.2 Monitoring of the first passive house “M4” in Croatia

 

The first realized family passive house “M4” in Croatia realized at the end of 2005 in the small place Bestovje close to Zagreb is the most important monitoring example. It has have 200 m2 netto surface. The ovener started to use the house in the beginning of 2006. The author (Lj. Miščević) made redesign of existing project to maximize energy efficiency on the level of passive house standard. The house was two times tested with Blower Door, before and after repaired leakages and other problematic details. Two thermal-vision tests were done. Thermal-vision pictures were done too, before and after as the very best way to discover non air tight points of the envelope and to control the reparation.

During eight years energy consumption is monitored through bills. In three selected years from 2010 – 2013 electricity consumption was in total 18.564 kWh which is about 6.260 kWh/a. For heating of space was used 2.590 kWh, for water heating 1.860 kWh and for other 1.810 kWh.

2.590 kWh divided with the surface of 200 m2 = 12,95 kWh/m2a

 

3.3 PassREg project

 

The most important project that promotes passive house after PASS-NET is PassREg that includes renewable energies. The project coordinator is Passive House Institute form Darmstadt, Germany.

In Croatian case, regarding to experience with realized very low energy houses in wormer climate zones the use of renewable energy (primarily solar) is changing very fast in direction from north to south region (two basic climate zones).

Figure3: The map of participants and the www home page of PassREg project.

 

 

The project is supported by Intelligent Energy Europe, duration is 36 months till 30th April 2015. From Croatian side the City of Zagreb is the partner. In the project are ten partners from seven EU states. Goals are to increase a need for passive houses building and consciousness of stake holders and decision makers, to develop financing models, produce optimal projects for passive houses, to force capacities for education of professionals, stimulation of trade for materials and technology and to increase a number of passive houses in towns.

The three main actions are to learn from examples of the best practice, development of infrastructure (education of architects, engineers and craftsmen, ensure a quality of work and monitoring of results and dissemination (www, promotions etc.).

 

4 The new projects and realizations

 

Regarding mostly to European Union projects, especially to INTENSE, IDES-EDU, ECO-SANDWICH and CROSKILLS (IEE) projects, knowledge about passive house concept is becoming basic educational model in high education and professional long life learning in advanced study programs.

Passive family house “V2” - Energy nearly zero

Strizivojna, Croatia, project, 2011-12

 

Passive family house “K5” (ENZ),

Karlovac, (ENZ) Croatia, project, 2012-13

 

Passive office building ČAKOM (ENZ).

Čakovec, Croatia, project 2012

Figure 4: Selected new projects by architect Lj. Miščević

 

 

4.1 Single-family detached house „M6“ in Gornji Stupnik

 

Single-family detached house „M6“ in Gornji Stupnik (Zagreb County) is the first construction of reinforced concrete foundation slab on 16.00 cm thermal isolation of XPS. The building construction over concrete basement and staircase construction is of wood construction. This house is chose as referent realization for the new EPBD report.

Figure 5: Family passive house “M6”, Gornji Stupnik, Zagreb, Croatia, author Lj. Miščević, realization in 2012-14

 

Figure 6: The first office-residential passive house, Rudan d.o.o. Žminj, Istria. Author: Darijan Čekada, MArch, AGM PROJEKT d.o.o., consultatnt prof Lj. Miščević, MArch

 

 

5 Passive house concept and the new achieved perception of energy efficiency and sustainability

 

Passive house concept as a quarter of century experience is scientifically and practically proved energy concept of architecture in synergy with construction and installation systems that developed amazing innovations in the field of energy efficient products; materials, elements and building systems. Economical values are checked and they made affordable reality of investment. Healthy characteristics of indoor environment, thermal and acoustical comfort achieved the highest level in the history of architecture. Passive house concept because of all references is the most relevant in programming and planning low carbon development.

As researcher, academy professor and professional in the field of architecture and sustainable development for years I am completely convinced that passive house concept of Professor Wolfgang Feist, PhD is “a solid foundation for the energy revolution” as he said in foreword from the editor at 17th international PH conference in Frankfurt 2013.

For years passive house is showed in diagrams as the smallest column of energy consumption reaching so low level. With addition of some active installation systems (solar PV and/or thermal collectors) it is easily becoming zero or plus energy building.

Figure 7: Traditional diagram with addition of plus energy buildings (author: Lj. Miščević, 2013)

 

 

Figure 8: The new perception diagram with addition of plus energy buildings (author: LJ. Miščević, 2013). Columne „F“ on diagram shows passive house data with addition of RES where is a huge amount of solar radiation as in south region of Croatia (according to REHVA it is in zones 1 & 2 for nZEB) that easily secure the jump over zero level and becomes „+ energy“ or „Passive house plus“ or „Passive house Premium“ as it is defined by Passive House Institute in Darmstadt.

 

 

6 References

 

[Miščević 2007]

Miščević, Lj.: Passive houses in Croatia – projects and realizations, 11th International Conference on Passive Houses 2007, Conf. Proceed., Bregenz, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2007, pg 295-300

 

[Miščević 2009]

Miščević, Lj.: Experience in architectural design, construction and utilization of passive houses and a start of PASS-NET IEE project in Croatia, 13th International Passive House Conference 2009, Frankfurt, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2009, 978-3-00-027511-1, pg 221-226

 

[Miščević 2009]

Miščević, Lj.: Architecture as a Power Plant – from Passive House to Plus-energy Architecture, Exhibition catalogue, ISBN 978-953-7316-09-9

 

[Miščević 2010]

Miščević, Lj.: Passive house in South-Central Europe, 14th International Passive House Conference 2010, Dresden, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2010, ISBN: 978-3-00-031174-1, pg 321-328

 

[Miščević 2011]

Miščević, Lj.: From the unique item to prefabricated wooden Passive House, 15th International Passive House Conference 2011, Innsbruck, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2011, ISBN: 978-3-00-034396-4, pg 165-170

 

[Miščević 2012]

Miščević, Lj.: The first ten realizations of Passive Houses in Croatia – experience in design, construction and financing, 16th International Passive House Conference 2012, Hannover, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2012, ISBN: 978-3-00-037720-4, pg 241-246

 

[Miščević 2013]

Miščević, Lj.: Passive House and ECO-SANDWICH EU Eco-innovation Project for Facade Panels, 17th International Passive House Conference 2013, Frankfurt, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2013, ISBN: 978-3-00-041346-9, pg 517-518

 

 

 

 

---

Miščević, Lj.: The first twenty passive houses in Croatia, 18th International Passive House Conference 2014, Aachen, Conference Proceedings, Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt, 2014, ISBN: 978-3-00-045216-1, pg 503-508

 

 

 

 

© Passive House Consortium Croatia | 2017.